+ + + Fachverbindungen ins Internet + + +

collected by Dr. Reinhard G. Lehmann
Forschungsstelle für Althebräische Sprache und Epigraphik /
Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew & Epigraphy

Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz

Descriptions of pages which are only useful with knowledge of German language are written in German
Proposals of serious links that should be added here and any corrections please mail to Reinhard G.Lehmann
Go to homepage of Reinhard G.Lehmann

Last updated: 05.12.2007

Wanted Mailing lists Classroom Hebrew Epigraphy Aramaic Ugaritic Phoenician Journals Fonts+Software


ISATEX ISATEX ist eine Internet-Informations-Stelle für Alt-Testamentliche EXegese und die wissenschaftliche Erforschung des Alten Testaments. Allen am Alten Testament bzw. der alttestamentlichen Wissenschaft/Exegese Interessierten bietet ISATEX die im Internet verfügbaren Ressourcen dieser Disziplin und angrenzender Fachgebiete (wie z.B. Ägyptologie, Altorientalistik, Archäologie, Semitistik etc.) Go there!
Mark Smith Bibliography
A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the Twentieth Century, by Mark Smith.
The most extensive bibliography of Biblical Hebrew, for pdf download.

Go there
Olmo Lete Bibliography
A Bibliography of Semitic Linguistics (1940-2000), by Dr. Gregorio del Olmo Lete, for pdf download.

Go there
WiBiLex Das wissenschaftliche Bibellexikon im Internet. Alttestamentlicher Teil, herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Michaela Bauks und Prof. Dr. Klaus Koenen.

Go there


Canaanite! Canaanite is a moderated academic discussion list that focuses on Canaanite linguistics and literature. Purely linguistic as well as purely literary discussions are welcome on the list as are discussions of the wider cultural contexts of the Canaanite languages. Languages specifically within the scope of the list include:
    * Phoenician, Punic and Neo-Punic
    * Ugaritic
    * Ancient Hebrew, including the Tiberian, Palestinian, and Babylonian variants of both Biblical Hebrew and Mishnaic Hebrew, as well as both Biblical and Late Samaritan Hebrew
    * First millennium BCE epigraphic dialects, including epigraphic Hebrew, Ammonite, etc.
    * Second millennium BCE inscriptions in Proto-Canaanite, Proto-Sinaitic, as well as the cuneiform tablets from Amarna, Taanach, and elsewhere that contain Canaanite.

The Modern Hebrew language and its literature is not within the scope of the discussion group.
The group allows communication in English, German, or French.
Join It!
Mailing Forum for Classical Hebrew Studies. *hebraisticum* is an open mailing list on topics and issues of interest in the whole field of classical Hebrew, i.e. Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew Epigraphy, Hebrew Sirach and Hebrew Language of the DSS. It is intended to support an European (or world-wide) Network for Classical Hebrew, that is to encourage scholarly interaction and exchange of information in the field of Classical Hebrew in an uncomplicated manner and in a fast medium. *hebraisticum* is a project of the ‘Research Unit on Ancient Hebrew & Epigraphy’ at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. Conference languages are German, English, or French. Subscribe with "subscribe hebraisticum" (without " "!) als a mail to Join It!
b-hebrew Another mailing forum on Biblical Hebrew, often more engaged in religious than in philological or linguistic matters. To join it, go there:
ANE "ANE is a mailing list on topics and issues of interest in Ancient Near Eastern Studies, from the Indus to the Nile, and from the beginnings of human habitation to the rise of Islam. It is intended to provide a medium for discussion among scholars and students actively engaged in research and study of this broad field. [...] Active (on-list) participation in ANE assumes an informed knowledge of the ancient Near East [...]."
The ANE list was stopped on February 16, 2006. But the discussion archive of ANE up to that date is still there.
A successor to the Ancient Near East Discussion List originally hosted by the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago. ANE 2 is a moderated academic discussion list that focuses on topics and issues of interest in Ancient Near Eastern Studies, from the Indus to the Nile, and from the beginnings of human habitation to the rise of Islam. It is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas on these topics between and among scholars and students actively engaged in research and study of the Ancient Near East. Active (on-list) participation in ANE 2 assumes an informed knowledge of the ancient Near East and adherence to List Protocols. […] ANE 2 is international in scope. List Members should expect to be able to read postings in English, French and German. Participants are free to post in any of these languages, and, upon occasion, in other languages used in the study of the Ancient Near East."
Moderated by Trudy S. Kawami, N. P. Lemche, Marc Cooper, Robert Whiting, and Charles E. Jones.
Discussion group for manuscripts and versions of the
Old Testament. "Topics may include the Masoretic Text, the Masora, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Septuagint, other Greek versions, the AramaicPeshitta Tanak, the Aramaic Targums, Latin Versions etc."
"A forum for the scholarly discussion of the Aramaic language in its various periods and dialects. This is a linguistic and philological group open to participants from any or no religious persuasion. Knowledge of at least one Aramaic dialect is encouraged but not required." Go!
History of the Ancient Mediterranean
Ioudaios-L "Ioudaios-L is a virtual community of scholars engaged in on-line discussion of Judaism in the Greco-Roman world. The original Ioudaios-L list began on or about April 25, 1990 as the 'First-Century Judaism Discussion Forum'. The current Ioudaios-L list reopened on December 20, 1997.
As of 31 December 2004, this website is no longer being updated. However, most of the materials in it are still useful and valid (
Go directly to mailings from 1992 up to 2007

Hugoye-L "Hugoye-list is an e-mail discussion group devoted to the academic field of Syriac studies. The list is associated with the electronic journal Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies and is sponsored by the Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute. Intended for the use of academic scholars, Hugoye-list is not an appropriate forum for amateur inquiries. The framework for discussion is academic and non-political." subscribe!


Hebrew Bible Audio Tracks
Audio tracks in mp3 format of the whole Hebrew Bible, read by Abraham Shmueloff, Courtesy of Audio Scriptures International.
Go there
Hebrew & Aramaic
Playing here Sudoku online with several Northwest Semitic alphabets. A useful gadget to train the knowledge of Hebrew square script for beginners, as well as Hebrew Rashi script, Anciet Hebrew Lachish script, Herodian Hebrew, and Aramaic scripts as Old Aramaic, Nabatean, Estrangela, Mandaya, and Serto.

Go there
Papyrus Puzzle Game "Imagine to yourself what it would be like to come across an exciting manuscript in the middle of the desert. You are searching in a dark cave, unexplored for thousands of years and you come across--what?"
A beginner's exercise by Bruce Zuckerman.
A specimen of the educational sites of the WSRP.
Go there!
Chicken Little "Deciphering ancient inscriptions and manuscripts would be easy if archaeologists found them completely whole and intact [...]. Unfortunately, most inscriptions are found in fragmentary condition. When that happens, an epigrapher has to not only figure out what the surviving pieces say, but also what the missing pieces might have said. Scholars call this process 'reconstruction.'" Another exercise by Bruce Zuckerman.
Another specimen of the educational sites of the WSRP.
Go there!


Aleppo Codex
The Aleppo Codex fully readable online, and informations.
Go there
A Concise Linguistic e-Introduction
                        to Classical Hebrew
by Vincent DeCaen, Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations University of Toronto. It seems to bee what the title says, and at first glance seems to be useful - but not for self-study. Go there!
Hebrew Cantillation Marks
and their encoding, by Helmut Richter. "A short description of the Hebrew cantillation marks and their usage for structuring the Bible text is given. The problems of their representation in modern character codes are briefly outlined. The article contains also tables with the Unicode and the Michigan-Claremont codings of the cantillation marks. Cantillation, which obviously is the purpose of cantillation marks, is not treated here." Go there!
Hebrew Syntax
Encoding Initiative
by Vincent DeCaen, University of Toronto, to provide "a freely available syntactic database and corresponding search engine for the Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic syntactician and discourse analyst." Go there!
Taylor-Schechter Genizah
Research Unit
Professional site on all aspects of the Taylor-Schechter Geniza texts, Cambridge University Go there!
The Westminster hebrew Institute
Go there!
Mathematical Miracles ... ... in the Bible, the Qur'an and elsewhere? A sceptical site on the so-called 'Bible Code' Go there!


West Semitic Research Project:  Ancient images and commentary relating to the Bible and the ancient Near East
The most important place for epigraphic research in the web!
Contains an educational site with "Images in low resolution format with accompanying commentary for use by educators and students" and a scholarly site providing a "Catalogue of West Semitic Research Project images which can be obtained in high resolution format"
Go there!
The absolutely most important place in the web for epigraphical research!
"The InscriptiFact Project is a database designed to allow access via the Internet to high-resolution images of ancient inscriptions from the Near Eastern and Mediterranean Worlds. The target inscriptions are some of the earliest written records in the world from an array of international museums and libraries and field projects where inscriptions still remain in situ. Included are, for example, Dead Sea Scrolls; cuneiform tablets from Mesopotamia and Canaan; papyri from Egypt; inscriptions on stone from Jordan, Lebanon and Cyprus; Hebrew, Aramaic, Ammonite and Edomite inscriptions on a variety of hard media (e.g., clay sherds, copper, semi-precious stones, jar handles); and Egyptian scarabs. These ancient texts represent religious and historical documents that serve as a foundation and historical point of reference for Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the cultures out of which they emerged."
Go there!
El-Kerak the Moabite El-Kerak inscription, informations and a good photograph.
A specimen of the educational sites of the WSRP.
Go there!
Amman Citadel General introduction, literature, translation, and a good photograph of the Ammonite Citadel inscription.
Another specimen of the educational sites of the WSRP.
Go there!
Heshbon Ostraca General introduction, literature, and good photographs of the Ammonite Heshbon ostraca no. 2 and no. 4.
Another specimen of the educational sites of the WSRP.
Go there!
Inscriptions from the Land of Israel Database of all inscriptions from ca 330 BCE until 614 CE Go there!
K. C. Hanson's Collection of
West Semitic Documents
A collection of the most important West Semitic inscriptions, with photographs, material facts, translation, basic literature and some questions for further study, by K.C.Hanson.
A good first step for beginners.
Go there!
Alfabetos de Ayer y de Hoy
Spanish site. Good overview with lots of drawings and pictures of Hebrew inscriptions.
Go there
Ancient Scripts of the World General overview on the history and development of the old Systems of writing and script. Good information for beginners. A rich and varied page on a lot of aspects of writing systems, writing techniques, and a lot of related links. By Lawrence Kwok Leung Lo, who is not an expert, but made an useful site. Go there!
Evolution of Alphabets Some animated illustrations on the development of alphabetic scripts from Phoenician upto the modern Latin Alphabet. By Prof. Robert Fradkin, University of Maryland. Go there!
Some Aspects of Older Writing Systems A  fine online-article on scribal technique and the principal distinction between a scribe and a calligrapher, by Rochelle I. S.- Altman, 1999. Go there!

ARAMAIC (including SYRIAC)

Newsletter for Targumic
and Cognate Studies
Homepage of the bibliographical resource for Aramaists from Early Aramaic up to Targumic literature. Lists of recent publications on the topic also in the remotest journals and books! To be recommended for aramaistic literature research. Go there!
The Comprehensive
Aramaic Lexicon
of the Hebrew Union College Jewish Intitute of Religion, Cincinnati, USA. A new dictionary of the Aramaic language, currently in preparation by an international team of scholars. Current editors are Prof. Stephen A. Kaufman of HUC and Prof. Joseph A. Fitzmyer of Catholic University of America (emeritus), with Prof. Michael Sokoloff of Bar Ilan University as associate editor. This major scholarly reference work will cover all dialects and periods of ancient Aramaic.
A comfortable searchable database!
Go there!
Jastrow Dictionary
A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature by Marcus Jastrow, online pdf version for download.
Go there!
J. Payne Smith Dictionary
J. Payne Smith (Mrs. Margoliouth), A Compendius Syriac Dictionary, Oxford 1903
Go there!
William Jennings Dictionary William Jennings, Lexicon to the Syriac New testament (Peshitta), Oxford 1926 Go there!
Beth Mardutho
The Syriac Computing Institute
By the way a big collection of links to Syriac. Go there!
Learn Assyrian OnLine Material to learn Syriac (!) online and a lot of links to other useful sites, made by modern christian 'Assyrians'. To learn syrian (nestorian) script with pronounciation examples. Go there!


Mark Smith Bibliography
A Bibliography of Ugaritic Grammar and Biblical Hebrew Grammar in the Twentieth Century, by Mark Smith.
The most extensive bibliography of Biblical Hebrew.

Go there
Universität Münster
The page for the series ALASPM, AOAT, AVO, Eikon, ELO, UBL, and UF. Go there!
Josef Tropper
Ugaritisch. Kurzgefasste Grammatik mit Übungstexten und Glossar
A new Ugaritic manual in the new founded series Linguarum Orientis (ELO). Go there!
University of Edinburgh
The Edinburgh Ras Shamra Project Go there!
Universidad de Barcelona
Instituto del Próximo Oriente Antiguo, Universidad de Barcelona. Many activities on Northwest Semitic, esp. Ugaritic. Written in Spanish. - more detailed descriptions will follow - Go there!
Sapanu edited by J. L. Cunchillos, J. A. Zamora and J. P. Vita, is the place in Internet where, since 1997, the Spanish Hermeneumatics Lab, Laboratorio de Hermeneumatica, (Instituto de Filologia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid, Spain) offers freely some of his works. Sapanu gives access to the Spanish project: Northwest Semitic Filological Database: Ugaritic. The Datbase provides, along with the corpus of Ugartic alphabetic texts, the informatic tools that have been developped by the team leaded by Prof. Cunchillos for the study of Ugaritic language, like the Generator of Segmentations, Restitutions and Concordances.
Sapanu also offers interesting information about recent works and findings in Phoenician sites of Spain, like Huelva, Tejada, Penalosa and San Bartolome (province of Huelva) and La Fonteta (province of Alicante).
Go there!
MRZH General introduction and photographs of the ugaritic MRZH tablet. Go there!
Ugaritic by Myriad Imags To download a font (for Mac) made by David Myriad Go there!


Centro de Estudios
Fenicios y Punicos
Departamento de Historia Antigua de la Facultad de Geografia e Historia de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Go there!
A Bequest Unearthed,
"These Web pages are a compilation of studies about the origin, history, geography, religion, arts & crafts, trade, language, literature, music, politics, wars, archaeological evidence, and contribution to Western and Middle Eastern culture of an ancient Canaanite people of the Middle East called the Phoenicians." A lot of material compiled by Salim George Khalaf, NC, USA, who is not a semitic scholar but a highly interested man who made the biggest collection about Phoenicia I ever saw in the Internet. Go there!
Phoenicia: Literatur More than 400 titles Go there!
Informations on the already unpublished Phoenician Incirli inscription. Go
Baalism in Canaanite Religion ...
... and its relation to selected Old Testament texts. By Greg Herrick, Dallas Theological Seminary. Go


Aramaic Studies
Aramaic Studies. Edited by Willem F. Smelik and Bas ter Haar Romeny. Online edition
Go there!
BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oiental Research: table of contents and abstracts starting with number 293, 1994. Go there!
Biblica The On-Line Partial Edition was launched in 1998. It includes a General Index beginning with volume 71 (1990), summaries of articles which have appeared in Biblica since 1990, and the complete text of articles and short notes beginning with the year 1990. Go there!
An electronical journal for Syriac studies. General editor is George Anton Kiraz, The Syriac Computing Institute / Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute. Go there!
JSS Journal of Semitic Studies: Tables of contents, starting with volume 41, 1996, and table of contents mailing service. Go there!
An academic, refereed electronic journal devoted to the critical study of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament). General Editor: Ehud Ben Zvi, Editorial Board: Adele Berlin, Philip R. Davies, Lyle Eslinger, Michael V. Fox, M. Pat Graham, Gary N. Knoppers, Francis Landy, Niels Peter Lemche, Gene M. Tucker, Diana V. Edelman, Yehoshua Gitay. Go there!
JNSL Journal of Northwest Semitic Studies. Online table of contents, abstracts, book reviews and review article, starting with vol. 21 (no year indicated!). Electronic copies (in PDF format) of individual articles in Volume 25 onwards can be ordered by e-mail. Cost per article $7.00. Go there!
JNES Journal of Near Eastern Studies tables of contents starting with volume 55, 1996. Go there!
Kadmos • Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik
Go there
ZAW • Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft - pdf
Go there
ZA • Zeitchrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie - pdf
Go there

"An active research interest in the Ancient Near East means negotiating a vast array of relevant publications in a quest for detailed information, pertinent data and original insights. Amongst these works are a large number of journals, periodicals, monograph series and occasional publications which - for the sake of convenience - are usually cited in abbreviated form. Whilst prefatory pages often provide a key to these abbreviations, they are rarely comprehensive and are often either missing or lacking in convenience.
To help remedy this situation, AncientNearEast.Net is pleased to have compiled a list of the more useful abbreviations employed. As a further aid, a select number of common acronyms and sigla have been inserted into the list, largely concerned with various relevant institutions, textual indicators and the like."
Go there!


Jaghbub font package Jaghbub is a transkription font which was originally developped for Arabic on the Mac, but is very useful for other Semitic languages, too. It is cut as Times, Palatino, and Helvetica. Freeware. Highly recommended! Go there!
Accordance Bible Software
by OakTree Software, written by Roy Brown for the Macintosh platform.
"Accordance is the premier Bible Study Software for Macintosh, offering you the power you need, the interface you expect, and the choices you want."
The Power you need!
"Accordance gives you all the tools you need to study the Scriptures in your own way. Search the Bible, compare translations, highlight the text, add your own notes, consult the Greek and Hebrew, access commentaries and other reference works -- you name it, Accordance makes it possible."
Go there!
PopChar Pro
"Tired of searching special characters with Key Caps? Want to get the most out of your fonts? Then PopChar Pro is the right tool for you. PopChar Pro makes 'typing' of unusual characters easy without having to remember keyboard combinations. It installs a menu that shows all characters available in the current font. Any character can be inserted in the current document by simply selecting it from the menu." Worth 39 $, highly recommended! Go there!
SP fonts

for platform interchange between Mac and Windows • Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and Transliteration PD fonts for the Mac and for Windows
"The SP fonts are a set of simple, free fonts that were created for use on the Web, though they also work in print. The design goals behind the SP fonts are (1) simple installation; (2) simple input of text, based on accepted transliteration standards; (3) use of common character maps for Macs and Windows computers. By creating these free fonts, it was my hope that scholars, students, and others could interchange multilingual text documents with one another as easily and inexpensively as possible." (by Jimmy Adair)
Go there!


für biblische Sprachen. Gut gemachte Seite mit links auch zu anderen Seiten mit Unicode-Schriften wie Koptisch, Syrisch, Äthiopisch etc.

Go there
Metho Syriac Fonts
by the Syriac Computing Institute. Syriac Fonts for the Windows 2000 Professional  Operating System. Free download. Go there!
Jack Kilmon's fonts for ... scholars, academics, students. Jack Kilmon, "the scribe", puts at our disposal a lot of epigraphic fonts such as Moabite(Mesha), Sinaiticus Uncial Greek, Lachish, Elephantine, Siloah, Qumran and many more, mainly Windows True Type, but some are also for the Mac! "These are font sets that I have constructed myself. They are designed for the classroom or for publications where original scribal or epigraphic script would be more desireable than transcriptions." Go there!
Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative A free downloadable Mac-PC compatible cuneiform transliteration true type fontset. = Go there!
Fonts in Cyberspace Sources of Language fonts on the Internet, offering a lot of fonts for Mac, Windows, MS-DOS and TeX Go there!

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