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Cryptology

Historical Highlights

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New Paradigms in Cryptology

Prehistory and ancient worldNaive encryption methods
Al-Khalil ≈780 Method of the probable word
Ad-Duraihim ≈1360Frequency analysis
Alberti 1466Polyalphabetic ciphers (Porta 1563)
Bellaso 1553Use of keys
Bazeries 1891Cipher cylinder (Jefferson 1790)
Kasiski 1861Disenchanting polyalphabetic ciphers (Babbage 1846)
Kerkhoffs 1883Principles of good encryption
Vernam 1917Binary encryption
Hebern, ... 1919Rotor machines (van Hengel/Spengler 1915)
Friedman 1922Systematic exploration of statistical methods for cryptanalysis
Hill 1929Algebraic methods
Flowers 1944Cryptanalysis enters the electronic era.
Shannon 1949Methods of Information Theory
Feistel 1970Systematic approach to bitblock encryption
Diffie/Hellman1976Asymmetric cryptography (Ellis 1970)
Shamir, ... 1991Advanced methods of cryptanalysis

Main Encryption Methods

Antiquity – 15th CenturyMonoalphabetic substitution
14th Century – WW II Nomenclator/Codebook
19th Century – WW II Mechanical devices (cipher disks, slides, cylinders)
WW I – ≈1970 Electromechanical devices (rotor and pinwheel machines)
≈1970 – now Electronic ciphers (hard- and software)
1971 – 2000 DES and DH, RSA, ECC
2001 – now AES and DH, RSA, ECC

Persons and Culmination Eras


Author: Klaus Pommerening, 2007-Nov-04; last change: 2021-Jan-14.