Inventors and Names of Cryptological Procedures 

Why are so many cryptological procedures named after random people instead of their true inventors? See FAQ. This phenomen is also known as Stigler's law of eponymy.
Inventor  Procedure  Alternative Names  Remarks 

(Antiquity)  Monoalphabetic substitution, respecting word boundaries and punctuation  Aristocrat  A. is the common denomination by ACA 
?  Monoalphabetic substitution, with cipher text in groups of fixed length  Patristocrat  P. is the common denomination by ACA 
Trithemius  Polyalphabetic substitution using standard alphabet and progressive alphabet change  Vigenère Cipher (widespread)  Tools: Trithemius table (tabula recta)—often called »Vigenère Table«— or cipher disk 
Bellaso  Polyalphabetic substitution using standard alphabet and keydependent alphabet change  Vigenère Cipher (widespread)  Tools: as above 
Bellaso  Autokey cipher  Autoclave  Earliest record in 1564. Often attributed to Vigenère 
Porta  General polyalphabetic substitution  Frequently »Porta Cipher« denotes a special polyalphabetic cipher with fixed alphabets.  
Porta  General disk cipher  Quagmire II  Quagmire is the common denomination by ACA for periodic polyalphabetic ciphers. 
Sestri  Polyalphabetic substitution using reverse standard alphabet  Beaufort Cipher  Specified by Sestri 1710. 
Ibn adDuraihim  Grille  Cardano Grille  Cardano in 16th century is the earliest European source for this procedure. 
Bacon?  Cipher cylinder  Jefferson Wheel, Bazéries Cylinder, M94 
Independently invented several times in history. See the survey. 
?  Turning grille  Fleissner Grille  Earliest source 1745 in the Netherlands. Fleissner in 1881 gave a comprehensive description of the procedure. 
Wadsworth  Cipher disk with rings of different lengths  Wheatstone Machine  Constructed in 1817, having rings with 26 and 33 positions. Wheatstone's device from 1867 had rings with 26 and 27 positions. 
Wheatstone  Bigraphic substitution using a 5x5 square  Playfair Cipher  
Babbage and Kasiski (independently)  Period analysis  Kasiski Test  Babbage had it 10 years earlier than Kasiski, but kept it secret. 
du Carlet (?)  Kerckhoffs' principle  Maistre Jean Robert du Carlet, La Cryptographie, 1644.  
Miller  Onetime pad with numbers  Frank Miller's proposal from 1882 remained unnoticed until 2001.  
Vernam  XOR with periodically repeated key  Key on a punched tape, agglutinated as an endless tape  
Mauborgne  XOR with random onetime key  Vernam Cipher, One Time Pad 
Proposed as enhancement of Vernam's procedure 
Levine and Hill (independently)  Encryption by linear maps  Hill Cipher, Matrix Encryption 
Levine in 1924 as highschool student for a youth magazine, Hill in 1929 in American Mathematical Monthly. 