Inventors and Names of Cryptological Procedures

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Why are so many cryptological procedures named after random people instead of their true inventors? See FAQ. This phenomen is also known as Stigler's law of eponymy.

InventorProcedureAlternative NamesRemarks
(Antiquity) Monoalphabetic substitution, respecting word boundaries and punctuation Aristocrat A. is the common denomination by ACA
? Monoalphabetic substitution, with cipher text in groups of fixed length Patristocrat P. is the common denomination by ACA
Trithemius Polyalphabetic substitution using standard alphabet and progressive alphabet change Vigenère Cipher (widespread) Tools: Trithemius table (tabula recta)—often called »Vigenère Table«— or cipher disk
Bellaso Polyalphabetic substitution using standard alphabet and key-dependent alphabet change Vigenère Cipher (widespread) Tools: as above
Bellaso Autokey cipher Autoclave Earliest record in 1564. Often attributed to Vigenère
Porta General polyalphabetic substitution Frequently »Porta Cipher« denotes a special polyalphabetic cipher with fixed alphabets.
Porta General disk cipher Quagmire II Quagmire is the common denomination by ACA for periodic polyalphabetic ciphers.
Sestri Polyalphabetic substitution using reverse standard alphabet Beaufort Cipher Specified by Sestri 1710.
Ibn ad-Duraihim Grille Cardano Grille Cardano in 16th century is the earliest European source for this procedure.
Bacon? Cipher cylinder Jefferson Wheel,
Bazéries Cylinder,
Independently invented several times in history. See the survey.
? Turning grille Fleissner Grille Earliest source 1745 in the Netherlands. Fleissner in 1881 gave a comprehensive description of the procedure.
Wadsworth Cipher disk with rings of different lengths Wheatstone Machine Constructed in 1817, having rings with 26 and 33 positions.
Wheatstone's device from 1867 had rings with 26 and 27 positions.
Wheatstone Bigraphic substitution using a 5x5 square Playfair Cipher
Babbage and Kasiski (independently) Period analysis Kasiski Test Babbage had it 10 years earlier than Kasiski, but kept it secret.
du Carlet (?) Kerckhoffs' principle Maistre Jean Robert du Carlet, La Cryptographie, 1644.
Miller One-time pad with numbers Frank Miller's proposal from 1882 remained unnoticed until 2001.
Vernam XOR with periodically repeated key Key on a punched tape, agglutinated as an endless tape
Mauborgne XOR with random one-time key Vernam Cipher,
One Time Pad
Proposed as enhancement of Vernam's procedure
Levine and Hill (independently) Encryption by linear maps Hill Cipher,
Matrix Encryption
Levine in 1924 as high-school student for a youth magazine, Hill in 1929 in American Mathematical Monthly.

Author: Klaus Pommerening, 2007-Nov-04; last change: 2021-Jan-14.