Daniel Kunkel, Dr.


Research associate at Institute for Atmospheric Physics
Group of Airborne measurements and UTLS transport processes

Johannes Gutenberg – Universität Mainz
Room 505 / 05 264
Johann-Joachim Becherweg 21
55128 Mainz, Germany

Phone: +49 6131 3922283
Email: dkunkel@uni-mainz.de



I am an atmospheric scientist at the Institute for Atmospheric Physics of JGU Mainz. I received my Ph.D. in meteorology in 2013 at University Mainz while working at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry. My primary research is about dynamics on the synoptic- and meso-scale and consequences for constituent transport in the atmosphere. In particular I am interested in situations where transport occurs across so-called transport barriers.
One of these transport barriers is the tropopause, i.e., the barrier between the well-mixed troposphere and the rather stably stratified stratosphere. In mid-latitudes such cross tropopause exchange occurs to a large degree in relation to baroclinic wave dynamics. These rather large scale phenomena on the planetary and synoptic scale are accompanied by meso-scale features such as gravity waves and cloud occurrence at the tropopause which alter the tropopause structure and in some cases foster exchange. I study the underlying processes with a hierarchy of numerical models, from regional, idealized to global, realistic models. More so, I use Lagrangian analysis methods (e.g., trajectory calculations), forecast, analysis, and reanalysis data in conjunction with high resolution air borne measurements to identify and constrain processes leading to exchange between tropospheric and stratospheric air.
Another transport barrier that I am currently interested in is the so-called polar dome. This feature emerges close to the surface in the High Arctic, most dominantly during winter and spring. This barrier separates the High Arctic from the mid-latitudes but is under special circumstances permeable, thus providing the opportunity for mid-latitude emissions to enter into the High Arctic. These events then have a local impact on air quality but the underlying dynamics are also of relevance for the climate in the Arctic.

Publications (peer-reviewed only)

[2019] - [2018] - [2017] - [2016] - [2015] - [2014] - [2013] - [2012] - [2011] - [2010] - [2009]


  • Abbatt, J. P. D., Leaitch, W. R., Aliabadi, A. A., Bertram, A. K., Blanchet, J.-P., Boivin-Rioux, A., Bozem, H., Burkart, J., Chang, R. Y. W., Charette, J., Chaubey, J. P., Christensen, R. J., Cirisan, A., Collins, D. B., Croft, B., Dionne, J., Evans, G. J., Fletcher, C. G., Galí, M., Ghahremaninezhad, R., Girard, E., Gong, W., Gosselin, M., Gourdal, M., Hanna, S. J., Hayashida, H., Herber, A. B., Hesaraki, S., Hoor, P., Huang, L., Hussherr, R., Irish, V. E., Keita, S. A., Kodros, J. K., Köllner, F., Kolonjari, F., Kunkel, D., Ladino, L. A., Law, K., Levasseur, M., Libois, Q., Liggio, J., Lizotte, M., Macdonald, K. M., Mahmood, R., Martin, R. V., Mason, R. H., Miller, L. A., Moravek, A., Mortenson, E., Mungall, E. L., Murphy, J. G., Namazi, M., Norman, A.-L., O'Neill, N. T., Pierce, J. R., Russell, L. M., Schneider, J., Schulz, H., Sharma, S., Si, M., Staebler, R. M., Steiner, N. S., Thomas, J. L., von Salzen, K., Wentzell, J. J. B., Willis, M. D., Wentworth, G. R., Xu, J.-W., and Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.: Overview paper: New insights into aerosol and climate in the Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527-2560,doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2527-2019 , 2019.
  • Si, M., Evoy, E., Yun, J., Xi, Y., Hanna, S. J., Chivulescu, A., Rawlings, K., Veber, D., Platt, A., Kunkel, D., Hoor, P., Sharma, S., Leaitch, W. R., and Bertram, A. K.: Concentrations, composition, and sources of ice-nucleating particles in the Canadian High Arctic during spring 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3007-3024,doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3007-2019 , 2019.
  • Schulz, H., Zanatta, M., Bozem, H., Leaitch, W. R., Herber, A. B., Burkart, J., Willis, M. D., Kunkel, D., Hoor, P. M., Abbatt, J. P. D., and Gerdes, R.: High Arctic aircraft measurements characterising black carbon vertical variability in spring and summer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2361-2384, doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2361-2019 , 2019.
  • Willis, M. D., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Lee, A. K. Y., Schulz, H., Burkart, J., Aliabadi, A. A., Herber, A. B., Leaitch, W. R., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Aircraft-based measurements of High Arctic springtime aerosol show evidence for vertically varying sources, transport and composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 57-76,doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-57-2019 , 2019.


  • Knudsen, E. M., Heinold, B., Dahlke, S., Bozem, H., Crewell, S., Gorodetskaya, I. V., Heygster, G., Kunkel, D., Maturilli, M., Mech, M., Viceto, C., Rinke, A., Schmithüsen, H., Ehrlich, A., Macke, A., Lüpkes, C., and Wendisch, M.: Meteorological conditions during the ACLOUD/PASCAL field campaign near Svalbard in early summer 2017, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17995-18022,doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-17995-2018, 2018.
  • Mungall, E. L., Abbatt, J. P. D., Wentzell, J. J. B., Wentworth, G. R., Murphy, J. G., Kunkel, D., Gute, E., Tarasick, D. W., Sharma, S., Cox, C. J., Uttal, T., and Liggio, J.: High gas-phase mixing ratios of formic and acetic acid in the High Arctic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10237-10254, doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10237-2018, 2018.
  • Macdonald, K. M., Sharma, S., Toom, D., Chivulescu, A., Platt, A., Elsasser, M., Huang, L., Leaitch, R., Chellman, N., McConnell, J. R., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Lei, Y. D., Jeong, C.-H., Abbatt, J. P. D., and Evans, G. J.: Temporally delineated sources of major chemical species in high Arctic snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3485-3503, doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3485-2018, 2018.


  • Köllner, F., Schneider, J., Willis, M. D., Klimach, T., Helleis, F., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Hoor, P., Burkart, J., Leaitch, W. R., Aliabadi, A. A., Abbatt, J. P. D., Herber, A. B., and Borrmann, S.: Particulate trimethylamine in the summertime Canadian high Arctic lower troposphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13747-13766, doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13747-2017, 2017.
  • Collins, D. B., Burkart, J., Chang, R. Y.-W., Lizotte, M., Boivin-Rioux, A., Blais, M., Mungall, E. L., Boyer, M., Irish, V. E., Massé, G., Kunkel, D., Tremblay, J.-É., Papakyriakou, T., Bertram, A. K., Bozem, H., Gosselin, M., Levasseur, M., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Frequent ultrafine particle formation and growth in Canadian Arctic marine and coastal environments, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13119-13138, doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13119-2017, 2017.
  • Ghahremaninezhad, R., Norman, A.-L., Croft, B., Martin, R. V., Pierce, J. R., Burkart, J., Rempillo, O., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Thomas, J. L., Aliabadi, A. A., Wentworth, G. R., Levasseur, M., Staebler, R. M., Sharma, S., and Leaitch, W. R.: Boundary layer and free-tropospheric dimethyl sulfide in the Arctic spring and summer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8757-8770,doi:10.5194/acp-17-8757-2017, 2017.
  • Macdonald, K. M., Sharma, S., Toom, D., Chivulescu, A., Hanna, S., Bertram, A. K., Platt, A., Elsasser, M., Huang, L., Tarasick, D., Chellman, N., McConnell, J. R., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Lei, Y. D., Evans, G. J., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Observations of atmospheric chemical deposition to high Arctic snow, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5775-5788, doi:10.5194/acp-17-5775-2017, 2017.


  • Berkes, F., Hoor, P., Bozem, H., Kunkel, D., Sprenger, M., and Henne, S.: Airborne observation of mixing across the entrainment zone during PARADE 2011, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16,\ 6011-6025, doi:10.5194/acp-16-6011-2016, 2016.
  • Kristiansen, N. I., Stohl, A., Olivié, D. J. L., Croft, B., Søvde, O. A., Klein, H., Christoudias, T., Kunkel, D., Leadbetter, S. J., Lee, Y. H., Zhang, K., Tsigaridis, K., Ber\ gman, T., Evangeliou, N., Wang, H., Ma, P.-L., Easter, R. C., Rasch, P. J., Liu, X., Pitari, G., Di Genova, G., Zhao, S. Y., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S. E., Faluvegi, G. S., Kokkola, H., Martin, R. V., Pierce, J. \ R., Schulz, M., Shindell, D., Tost, H., and Zhang, H.: Evaluation of observed and modelled aerosol lifetimes using radioactive tracers of opportunity and an ensemble of 19 global models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16,\ 3525-3561, doi:10.5194/acp-16-3525-2016, 2016.
  • Kunkel, D., Hoor, P., and Wirth, V.: The tropopause inversion layer in baroclinic life cycles experiments: the role of diabatic processes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 541-560, doi:10.5194/acp-16-541-2016, 2016.


  • Frey, W., Schofield, R., Hoor, P., Kunkel, D., Ravegnani, F., Ulanovsky, A., Viciani, S., D'Amato, F., and Lane, T. P.: The impact of overshooting deep convection on local tran\ sport and mixing in the tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 15, 6467-6486, doi:10.5194/acp-15-6467-2015, 2015.


  • Kunkel, D., Hoor, P., Wirth, V. : Can inertia-gravity waves persistently alter the tropopause inversion layer, Geophyiscal Research Letters, 41, 7822-7829, doi:10.1002/2014GL061970.


  • Kunkel, D., Tost, H., and Lawrence, M. G.: Aerosol pollution potential from major population centers, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4203-4222, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4203-2013, 2013.
  • Lelieveld, J., Lawrence, M. G., and Kunkel, D.: Comment on "Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents" by Lelieveld et al. (2012), Atmos. Chem. \ Phys., 13, 31-34, doi:10.5194/acp-13-31-2013, 2013.


  • Lelieveld, J., Kunkel, D., and Lawrence, M. G.: Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4245-4258, doi:10.5194/acp-12-4245-2012, 2012.
  • Kunkel, D., M. G. Lawrence, H. Tost, A. Kerkweg, P. Jöckel, and S. Borrmann: Urban emission hot spots as sources for remote aerosol deposition, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L01808\ , doi:10.1029/2011GL049634, 2012


  • Frey, W., Borrmann, S., Kunkel, D., Weigel, R., de Reus, M., Schlager, H., Roiger, A., Voigt, C., Hoor, P., Curtius, J., Krämer, M., Schiller, C., Volk, C. M., Homan, C. D., Fi\ erli, F., Di Donfrancesco, G., Ulanovsky, A., Ravegnani, F., Sitnikov, N. M., Viciani, S., D'Amato, F., Shur, G. N., Belyaev, G. V., Law, K. S., and Cairo, F.: In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties \ in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5569-5590, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5569-2011, 2011.
  • Weigel, R., Borrmann, S., Kazil, J., Minikin, A., Stohl, A., Wilson, J. C., Reeves, J. M., Kunkel, D., de Reus, M., Frey, W., Lovejoy, E. R., Volk, C. M., Viciani, S., D'Amato\ , F., Schiller, C., Peter, T., Schlager, H., Cairo, F., Law, K. S., Shur, G. N., Belyaev, G. V., and Curtius, J.: In situ observations of new particle formation in the tropical upper troposphere: the role of cl\ ouds and the nucleation mechanism, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 9983-10010, doi:10.5194/acp-11-9983-2011, 2011.


  • Real, E., Orlandi, E., Law, K. S., Fierli, F., Josset, D., Cairo, F., Schlager, H., Borrmann, S., Kunkel, D., Volk, C. M., McQuaid, J. B., Stewart, D. J., Lee, J., Lewis, A. C\ ., Hopkins, J. R., Ravegnani, F., Ulanovski, A., and Liousse, C.: Cross-hemispheric transport of central African biomass burning pollutants: implications for downwind ozone production, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3\ 027-3046, doi:10.5194/acp-10-3027-2010, 2010.
  • Borrmann, S., Kunkel, D., Weigel, R., Minikin, A., Deshler, T., Wilson, J. C., Curtius, J., Volk, C. M., Homan, C. D., Ulanovsky, A., Ravegnani, F., Viciani, S., Shur, G. N., \ Belyaev, G. V., Law, K. S., and Cairo, F.: Aerosols in the tropical and subtropical UT/LS: in-situ measurements of submicron particle abundance and volatility, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5573-5592, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5573-2010, 2010.
  • Law, K. S., Fierli, F., Cairo, F., Schlager, H., Borrmann, S., Streibel, M., Real, E., Kunkel, D., Schiller, C., Ravegnani, F., Ulanovsky, A., D'Amato, F., Viciani, S., and Vo\ lk, C. M.: Air mass origins influencing TTL chemical composition over West Africa during 2006 summer monsoon, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10753-10770, doi:10.5194/acp-10-10753-2010, 2010.


  • de Reus, M., Borrmann, S., Bansemer, A., Heymsfield, A. J., Weigel, R., Schiller, C., Mitev, V., Frey, W., Kunkel, D., Kürten, A., Curtius, J., Sitnikov, N. M., Ulanovsky, A., \ and Ravegnani, F.: Evidence for ice particles in the tropical stratosphere from in-situ measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6775-6792, doi:10.5194/acp-9-6775-2009, 2009.