Cryptology
Mathematical Topics
ordered by subject areas
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Set theory
Alphabets and languages
mathematical model of cryptography
Category theory
(implicit)
similarity of ciphers
Algebra
Finite fields
prime fields
(follow the link
appendix
)
XOR encryption
, see also
here
.
bitblock ciphers
finite fields
polynomials and polynomial functions
Boolean functions and Boolean maps
[
example: Lucifer
,
example: DES
]
Boolean circuits
the algebraic normal form
Fourier analysis of Boolean maps
the field with 256 elements
cyclicity of the multiplicative group
the structure of the multiplicative group
roots of unity
, see also
here
the discrete logarithm
application to one-way functions
complexity
, see also
here
pseudorandom generator
square roots
primitive roots
Rings
homomorphy theorem
Semigroups
subsemigroups of finite groups
the binary power algorithm
homomorphism
Groups
order and exponent:
Carmichael function
RSA iteration
multiple ciphers and group structures
subgroups
, see also
here
homomorphisms and homomorphy theorem:
factoring RSA modules
iterating RSA
discrete logarithm
group actions, orbits, and stabilizers
, see also
here
shift ciphers
the number of invertible matrices over a residue class ring
Feistel networks
modes of operation of block ciphers
Permutation groups
permutations and Rejewski's theorem
the monoalphabetic substitution
(symmetric group)
cylinder ciphers
(cyclic permutations)
rotors
(conjugation and cycle decomposition)
the number of involutions
cryptanalysis of the Enigma
(cycle decomposition)
systems of generators of the symmetric group
(generation by two random elements, without proof)
even permutations
(proof of quadratic reciprocity)
Linear algebra
interpolation polynomials
binary vector spaces, Boolean linear forms
linear shift registers
, see also:
statistical properties
prediction
linear complexity
feedback polynomial
Berlekamp-Massey algorithm
companion matrix
, see also
here
.
minimal and characteristic polynomials
rank
Linear algebra over rings
algebraic cryptanalysis of autokey ciphers
permutation matrices
matrices over rings
elimination over the integers
example
application
the Hill cipher
the number of invertible matrices over a residue class ring
cryptanalysis of the Hill cipher
general linear random generator
, see also
here
.
Noetherian modules
.
nearest lattice point
(implicit).
Polynomials und systems of polynomial equations
algebraic cryptanalysis
examples
conditions
Newton interpolation
discriminant
primitive polynomial
example
Number theory
Prime decomposition (elementary)
Kasiski analysis
pairwise coprime periods
, see also
here
Prime numbers
the prime number theorem
Germain primes
, see also
here
and
here
primality tests
application
, also
here
and
here
construction of random primes
Prime decomposition
factoring and phi function
equivalent problems
Blum integers
application
the BBS sequence
the BBS generator
Divisibility and residue classes
the Euclidean algorithm
and congruence division
application
(prediction of congruence generators), see also
here
application
(ElGamal cipher)
Fermat's little theorem
, applications:
pseudoprime test
AKS prime test
period of congruence generators
chinese reminder theorem
multiplicative group of a residue class ring
Carmichael function
RSA parameters
Euler's phi function
complexity
application
(probability of flops in decomposing an RSA module)
application
(strong pseudoprime test)
the AKS primality test
Carmichael's function, Euler's theorem
complexity of Carmichael's function
iteration attack on RSA
breaking single ciphertexts
Carmichael numbers
RSA and pseudoprimes
the period of multiplicative congruence generators
Hensel lift
(mention), see also
here
primitive elements
, see also
here
period of multiplicative congruence generators
Quadratic residues
quadratic reciprocity law
application
square roots for
prime modules
,
prime power modules
,
composite modules
quadratic non-residues
application
complexity
quadratic residuosity conjecture
application to random generators
, see also
here
Additive number theory
addition chains
Fibonacci numbers
Lucas sequence
simple recurrence relations
knapsack problem
NP completeness
pseudorandom generator
Exponential sums
Walsh and Fourier transformations
Algebraic geometry
Elliptic curves
application
(square roots in finite fields, mention only)
pseudorandom generator
Analysis
Inequalities
Stirling's formula
the birthday paradox
Hadamard's inequality
Measure theory
translation invariant measures
Fubini's theorem
Special functions
RIEMANN's zeta function
elementary
Riemann's hypothesis
L-functions
and extended Riemann hypothesis
square roots in finite fields
searching for quadratic nonresidues
searching for primitive roots
Probability theory
Combinatorics
Stirling's formula
the birthday paradox
, applications:
Kasiski's search for repetitions
block length of bitblock ciphers
collisions for cipher block chaining
hash functions
the number of involutions
bent functions
,
Stochastic
uniformly distributed random variables in groups
Bayes' formula
(application: attack with known ciphertext)
probabilistic primality test
probability of a linear relation
hypergeometric distribution
, applications:
linear cryptanalysis
approximation by the normal distribution
success probability of linear cryptanalysis
Matsui's piling-up lemma
, application to linear cryptanalysis
probabilistic circuits
statistical properties of linear shift registers
, runs and autocorrelation
the mean value of linear complexity
correlation attacks
Language statistics
statistical analysis of ciphertexts
(with frequency tables)
coincidences of two texts
,
empirical values
autocoincidence of a text
the inner coincidence index of a text
stochastic languages
Sinkov's formula
cryptanalysis of running-text ciphers
anagramming
bigram frequencies
entropy and redundancy
Goodness of fit tests
(implicit)
column analysis of polyalphabetic ciphers
coincidence index of a natural language
cryptanalysis of rotor machines
Algorithms
Pattern recognition
pattern search for monoalphabetic ciphers
pattern search with Perl
breaking the Bazeries cylinder
cryptanalysis of Enigma
(negative pattern search)
Finte automata
states of a rotor machine
the control logic of a rotor machine
OFB mode
Algebraic algorithms
computer algebra
the binary power algorithm
Miller's primality test
the Euclidean algorithm
and its analysis
elimination over the integers
the chinese remainder algorithm
, relation with Newton interpolation
linear congruence generators
multistep generators
Berlekamp-Massey algorithm
BBS generator
, with
Mathematica code
BOOLEan maps
recursive evaluation and algebraic normal form
Walsh transformation
(including convolution, linear profile, differential profile)
linear shift registers
, with
Mathematica code
nonlinear shift registers
nonlinear combiners
, see also
here
and
here
Encryption
monoalphabetic substitution
Porta's cipher disk
Feistel scheme
Probabilistic algorithms
factoring using a known RSA key
probabilistic circuits
polynomial families of probabilistic circuits
probabilistic test for randomness
Complexity theory
Analysis of algorithms
Binary power algorithm
Euklidean algorithm
chinese remainder algorithm
integer elimination
recursive evaluation of Boolean functions
Walsh transformation and convolution
AKS algorithm
Machine models
Turing machines
, also
here
circuit complexity
amplification of advantage
perfect random generators
efficient prediction
, see also
here
and
here
linear complexity
comparision with Turing complexity
Turing-Kolmogorov-Chaitin complexity
Hard and NP-complete problems
binary polynomial equations
basic cryptographic functions
, see also
here
NP
knapsack problem
NP-completeness
pseudorandom generator
One-way functions
informal definition
application
difficulty
formal definition
Author:
Klaus Pommerening
, 2002-Jul-09; last change: 2019-Oct-29.